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    An Introduction to Stroke

    The majority of strokes (85%) are caused by acute ischaemia resulting from the blockage of a cerebral artery, leading to a loss of oxygenation in downstream brain tissue, and ultimately causing neuronal cell death and irreversible neurological damage. The remainder are haemorrhagic strokes, caused by intracerebral haemorrhage or subarachnoid haemorrhage. The treatment of ischaemic stroke has been transformed by advances in imaging technology, as well as the emergence of thrombolytic therapy and subsequent mechanical thrombectomy, sometimes facilitating complete recovery. The increasing use of direct oral anticoagulants is preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Therapies targeting neuroinflammation after brain ischaemia, such as transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells, are also emerging as a potentially useful treatment option.

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